12th Biology chapter 5: full solution, notes, MCQ, & free PDF | Bihar board

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12th Biology chapter 5 Bihar board with NCERT-Details & Highlights

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Question 1. In a pea plant studied by Mendel, in seven pairs of contrasting traits, the number of characters of flower, pod and seed respectively was

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    • (a) 2, 2, 2
      (b) 2, 2, 1
      (c) 1, 2 , 2
      (d) 1, 1, 2

Answer: (a) 2, 2, 2

Question 2. In the pea plant studied by Mendel, seven opposite pairs of characters of opposite color were

    • (a) 1
      (b) 2
      (c) 3
      (d) 4

Answer: (c) 3

Question 3. Which of the following features did not Mendel choose?

    • (a) pod shape
      (b) pod color
      (c) flower position
      (d) pod position in antirrinum (Dog flower),

Answer: (d) pod position in antirrinum (Dog flower),

Question 4. The visual pattern ratio for the inheritance of flower color in a generation will be

    • (a) 3:1
      (b) 1:2:1
      (c) 1:1
      (d) 2:1

Answer: (b) 1:2 :1

Question 5. The ABO blood group in humans represents an example of

    • (a) incomplete dominance
    • (b) co – dominance
    • ( c) polyzygosity
    • (d) (b) and (c) both

Answer: (d) (b) and ( c) both

Question 6. In order to determine the gene type of a tall plant of F1 generation, Mendel crossed it with a dwarf plant. It shows hybridization

    • (a) Priksharth hybridization
      (b) Snkrpurwaj hybridization
      (c) the inverse version
      (d) Dvisnkr hybridization

Answer: (a) Priksharth hybridization

Question 7. Some of the dominant characteristics studied by Mendel were

    • (a) round shape of seed, green color of seed and axial position of flower
      (b) inner position of flower, green color of pod and bloated shape of seed
      (c) violet of flower Colour, green color of pod and round shape of seed
      (d) Wrinkled shape of seed, yellow color of pod and axial position of flower.

Answer: (c) Violet color of flower, green color of pod and round shape of seed

Question 8. Genes which code a pair of opposite traits are called

    • (a) dominant genes
      (b) alleles
      (c) linked genes
      (d) none of these.

Answer: (b) Alleles

Question 9. Inheritance of flower color in Antirrinum (Dog flower) is an example of

    • (a) incomplete dominance
    • (b) co – dominance
    • ( c) polygamy
    • (d) linkage.

Answer: (a) incomplete effectiveness

Question 10. A child has blood group ‘0’. If father’s blood group is ‘A’ and mother’s blood group is ‘B’, then what is the genotype of the parents? Will happen?

    • (a) IAJA and IBi
      (b) IAS and IBi
      (c) Ai a ii
      (d) ii a IBi

Answer: (b) IAS and IBi

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Question 11. What are the chances of producing dwarf progeny in a cross between two tall heterozygous pea plants?

    • (a) Nil
      (b) 50%
      (c) 25%
      (d) 100%

Answer: (c) 25%

Question 12. Inheritance of roan coat in cattle Example of

    • (a) incomplete dominance
    • (b) co – dominance
    • ( c) multiple choice
    • (d) none of these.

Answer: (c) Multiple Choice

Question 13. If both the parents are carriers of Thalassemia, which is an autosomal recessive disorder, then what will be the chances of resulting pregnancy in the affected child?

    • (a) 25%
      (b) 100%
      (c) no possibility
      (d) 50%

Answer: (a) 25%

Question 14. An allele is said to be recessive when it is expressed in

    • (a) heterozygous only
      (b) homozygous only
      (c) F1 generation
      (d) both heterozygous and homozygous.

Answer: (b) Only in homozygous condition

Question 15. In a crossbreeding between two heterozygous organisms, in the F1 generation. The percentage of pure homozygous organisms will be

    • (a) 25%
      (b) 50%
      (c) 75%
      (d) 100%

Answer: (b) 50%

Question 16. The traits that appear in the first filial generation are called

    • (a) recessive traits
      (b) dominant traits
      (c) Hollandic traits
      (d) lethal traits.

Answer: (b) dominant character

Question 17. A tobacco plant which is heterozygous for the recessive trait, self-pollinated and 1200 seeds germinate. How many seedlings will have parent genotype?

    • (a) 1250
      (b) 600
      (c) 300
      (d) 2250

Answer: (b) 600

Question 18. In which of the following hybrids, tall and dwarf pea plants will be obtained in equal proportion?

    • (a) TT x tt
      (b) Tt x tt
      (c) TT x Tt
      (d) tt x tt

Answer: (b) Tt x tt

Question 19. If the blood group of both the parents is AB then what can be the blood group of the progeny?

    • (a) AB only
      (b) A, B and AB
      (c) A, B, AB and O
      (d) A and B only

Answer: (b) A, B and AB

Question 20 In which of the following cases the phenotypic and genotypic ratio are the same?

    • (a) full effectiveness
      (b) incomplete dominance
      (c) its effectiveness (Over Dominance)
      (D) predominance

Answer: (b) incomplete dominance

Question 21. “When two pairs of traits are combined in a hybrid, the segregation of traits in one pair is independent of the traits in the other pair.” Which of the following law/principles of Mendel does this statement explain?

    • (a) Principle of coupled factors
    • (b) Principle of influence
    • (c)Law of dissociation
    • (d) Law of independent matrices

Answer: (d) Law of independent matrices

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Question 22. The percentage of ab gamete produced from parent AbBb will be

    • (a) 25%
      (b) 50%
      (c) 75%
      (d) 12.5%

Answer: (a) 25%

Question 23. How many types of gametes can be produced by a diploid organism which is heterozygous for four locus?

    • (a) 4
      (b) 8
      (c) 16
      (d) 32

Answer: (c) 16

Question 24. The law of independent assortment can be explained with the help of

    • (a) dihybrid hybridization
      (b) test-to-test hybridization
      (c) hybrid ancestor hybridization
      (d) a single hybrid.

Answer: (a) dihybrid hybridization

Question 25. Mendel’s law of independent matrices does not apply to genes located very close to

    • (a) some chromosomes
      (b) homologous chromosomes
      (c) X-chromosome
      (d) autosomes.

Answer: (a) Some chromosomes

Question 26. Which of the following results will be obtained by self-pollination of YyRr plant?

    • (a) 9:3:3:1, ratio of phenotypes only
      (b) 9:3:3 : 1, ratio of genotypes only
      (c) 1 : 1 : 1 : 1, ratio of phenotypes only
      (d) 1 : 1 : 1 : 1, Ratio of phenotypes and genotypes

Answer: (a) 9:3:3:1, Ratio of phenotypes only

Question 27. Two or more independent genes present on different chromosomes showing almost same phenotype are called

    • (a) complementary genes
      (b) complementary genes
      (c) duplicate genes
      (d) none of the above.

Answer: (c) Duplicate Jeans

Question 28. Chromosomal theory of inheritance was given by

    • (a) Morgan and companions
      (b) Sutton and Boveri
      (c) Hugo de Breeze
      (d) Gregor J. Mendel.

Answer: (b) Sutton and Bowery

Question 29. What is true about crossing over between linked jeans?

    • (a) Gene exchange will not take place under any circumstances.
      (b) High percentage of gene exchange.
      (c) There is hardly any gene exchange.
      (d) None of the above.

Answer: (c) There is hardly any gene exchange.

Question 30. The first chromosome map/genetic map was prepared by

    • (a) Sutton and Boveri (1902)
      (b) Bateson and Punnett (1906)
      (c) Morgan (1910)
      (d) Stuartvent (1911)

Answer: (d) ) Stuartvent (1911)

Question 31. On the basis of the distance between any two genes which is inversely proportional to the strength of linkage, what will be the variation in gene exchanges?

    • (a) 50-100%
      (b) 0-50%
      (b) 0-30 (c) 75-100%
      (d) 100-150%

Answer: (b) 0-50%

Question 32. The distance between jeans is measured in

    • (a) angstrom
      (b) map unit
      (c) dobson unit
      (d) millimeter.

Answer: (b) Map unit

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Question 33. If linkage was known at the time of Mendel, then which of the following law would not be possible to describe?

    • (a) Law of effect
      (b) Law of independent matrices
      (c) Law of dissociation
      (d) Law of purity of gametes

Ans: (b) Law of independent matrices

Question 34. Genes located very close to each other on a chromosome are transferred with each other are called

    • (a) allelomorphs
      (b) homologous genes
      (c) linked genes
      (d) recessive genes.

Answer: (c) Linked Jeans

Question 35. xo type of sex determination and xy type of sex determination are examples of

    • (a) male heterozygosity
      (b) female heterozygosity
      (c) male homozygosity
      (d) (b) and (c) both

Answer: (a) male heterozygosity

Question 36. Cockroach is an example of X0 type of sex determination, in which males have

    • (a) one X chromosome
      (b) one Y chromosome
      (c) two X chromosomes
      (d) no X chromosome.

Answer: (a) One X chromosome

Question 37. In X0 type of sex determination

    • (a) females produce two different types of gametes.
      (b) Males produce two different types of gametes.
      (c) Females produce gametes having Y chromosome.
      (d) Males produce gametes having Y chromosome.

Answer: (b) Males produce two different types of gametes.

Question 38. Which of the following is wrong with respect to ZW-ZZ type sex determination

    • (a) It occurs in birds and some reptiles.
      (b) Females are homozygous and males are heterozygous.
      (c) 1 : 1 sex ratio is produced in the progeny.
      (d. All of the above.

Answer: (b) Females are homozygous and males are heterozygous.

Question 39. A couple has six girls. How likely are you to be a girl next time?

    • (a) 10%
      (b) 50%
      (c) 90%
      (d) 100%

Answer: (b) 50%

Question 40. The number of autosomes present in the liver cells of human female. The number is

    • (a) 22 autosomes
      (b) 22 pairs
      (c) 23 autosomes
      (d) 23 pairs.

Answer: (b) 22 pairs

Question 41. Haplodiploidy is found in

    • (a) grasshoppers and cockroaches
      (b) birds and reptiles
      (c) butterflies and moths..
      (d) bees, ants and wasps.

Answer: (d) Bees, Ants and Wasps.

Question 42. Select the incorrect statement related to genealogical analysis.

    • (a) Solid marks indicate unaffected individuals.
      (b) Proband is the person from whom the case history begins.
      (c) It is useful for genetics consultants.
      (d) It is an analysis of the characteristics of several generations of a family.

Answer: (a) Solid marks indicate unaffected persons.

Question 43. In sickle cell anemia, the shape of RBCs under oxygen tension becomes

    • (a) biconcave disc
      (b) elongated and curved
      (c) circular
      (d) spherical.

Answer: (b) Long and curved

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Question 44. If a hemophilic male carrier marries a female, which of the following will be true for their progeny?

    • (a) 50% of daughters will be carriers and 50% will be hemophilic
      (b) all daughters will be hemophilic.
      (c) All sons will be hemophilic and all daughters normal.
      (d) All sons will be commoners and all daughters will be carriers. ,

Answer: (a) 50% of daughters will be carriers and 50% will be hemophilic

Question 45. Mongolism is a genetic disorder which occurs due to the presence of an extra chromosome number

    • (a) 20
      (b) 21
      (c) 17
      (d) 23

Answer: (b) 21

Question 46. To identify Klinefelter’s syndrome from the following karyotypes

    • (a) XYY
      (b) XO
      (c) XXX
      (d) XXY

Answer: (d) XXY

Question 47. If the father of a child is color blind and the mother is a carrier of color blindness, the probability of the child being color blind will be

    • (a) 25%
      (b) 50%
      (c) 100%
      (d) 75%

Answer: (b) 50%

Question 48. In turner’s syndrome women have

    • (a) small uterus
    • (b) underdeveloped ovaries
    • (c) underdeveloped breasts
    • (d) all of the above.

Answer: (d) All of the above.

Question 49. Identify the mismatched pair.

    • (a) Haemophilia sex linked recessive
      (b) Cystic fibrosis – Autosomal recessive
      (c) Downs syndrome – Monosomy
      (d) Turner’s syndrome

Answer: (d) Turner’s syndrome

Question 50. After the telophase stage of marriage cell division, the complete set of chromosomes of an organism increases when cytokinesis has failed. This process is called

    • (a) polyploidy
      (b) haploidy
      (c) haploid
      (d) diploidy

Answer: (a) polyploidy

Question 51. In this disease, the transport of chloride ions across the surface membrane of epithelial cells becomes ineffective. The patient’s sweat contains high amounts of Nat and C ions. This disease is

    • (a) Thalassemia
      (b) Alzheimer’s disease
      (c) Gaucher’s disease
      (d) Cystic fibrosis.

Answer: (d) Cystic fibrosis.

Question 52. Monosomy is represented as

    • (a) (2n-1)
      (b) (2n-2)
      (c) (2n + 2)
      (d) (2n + 1)

Answer: (d) (2n + 1)

Question 53. This discrepancy is due to asymmetry (2n-1). This person has 2n = 45 chromosomes and the genotype 44+XO is

    • (a) Edwards syndrome
      (b) Downs syndrome
      (c) Turner’s syndrome
      (d) Klinefelter’s syndrome.

Answer: (c) Turner’s syndrome

Question 54. Select the disease which is caused by recessive autosomal genes present in homozygous condition

    • (a) alkaptonuria
      (b) albinism
      (c) cystic fibrosis
      (d) all of the above.

Answer: (d) All of the above.

Question 55. The marriage of a color blind man and a normal woman will result in

    • (a) all daughters being carriers and sons being normal.
      (b) 50% daughters will be carriers and 50% daughters will be normal.
      (c) 50% of the sons will be color blind and 50% of the sons will be normal.
      (d) All the offspring will be carriers.

Answer:(a) All daughters will be carriers and sons will be normal.

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Question 56. Which of the following trait is controlled by dominant autosomal genes?

    • (a)Polydactyly
    • (b) Huntington’s chorea
    • (c) PTC (phenylthiocarbamide) test
    • (d) All of the above.

Answer: (d) All of the above.

Question 57. Red-green color blindness is a gender-linked trait. Which of the following statements is not correct for color blindness

    • (a) It is more common in males than females.
      (b) Homozygous recessive stage is required for the expression of color blindness in females.
      (c) Males can be carriers of this trait.
      (d) The father of a color blind woman is always color blind and she always gives birth to a color blind son.

Answer: (c) Males can be carriers of this trait.

Question 58. All the genes on a chromosome

    • (a) form different groups on the basis of their relative distance.
      (b) form a linked group.
      (c) do not form any linked group.
      (d) form interacting groups that affect the phenotype.

Answer: (d) form interacting groups which affect the phenotype.

Question 59. The 2n+1 and 2n+2 karyotype states are called

    • (a) haploidy
      (b) polyploidy
      (c) allopolyploidy
      (d) monosomy.

Answer: (a) Asymptote

Question 60. The distance between genes and the percentage of recombination shows

    • (a) a direct relationship
      (b) an inverse relationship
      (c) a parallel relationship.
      (d) no relation.

Answer: (a) A direct relation

Question 61. If a genetic disease is transmitted from a visibly normal but carrier female to only a few male progeny, then the disease is

    • (a) autosomal dominant
      (b) autosomal recessive
      (c) sex-linked dominant
      (d) sex- Linking ineffective.

Answer: (d) Gender-linked recessive.

Question 62.The individuals whose genotype is IAB will show AB blood group.The reason for this is

    • (a)multiple dominance
    • (b) co-dominance
    • (c) dissociation
    • (d) incomplete dominance.

Answer: (b) co-dominance

Question 63. Sex determination of ZZZW type is seen in

    • (a) Platypus
      (b) Snail
      (c) Cockroach
      (d) Peacock.

Answer: (d) Peacock.

Question 64. As a result of crossbreeding between two tall plants, some dwarf plants are obtained in the progeny. What will be the genotype of both the parents?

    • (a) TT and Tt
      (b) Tt and TE
      (c) TT and TT
      (d) Tt and tt

Answer: (b) Tt and TE

Question 65. In a dihybrid hybridization, if we get a ratio of 9:3:3:1, it shows that

    • (a) alleles of two genes are interacting with each other.
      (b) It is a polygenic inheritance.
      (c) It is a case of multiple allelicism.
      (d) The alleles of the two genes have segregated independently.

Answer: (d) The alleles of the two genes are independently segregated.

Question 66. Mendel’s law of independent matrices is good for those genes which are located on

    • (a) homologous chromosome
      (b) homologous chromosome
      (c) extra nuclear genetic element
      (d) same chromosome.

Answer: (b) Homologous chromosomes

Question 67. In some taxa of insects, some have 17 chromosomes and others have 18 chromosomes. Organisms having 17 and 18 chromosomes are

    • (a) male and female respectively
    • (b) female and male respectively
    • (c) all male
    • (d) all female .

Answer: (a) Male and female respectively

Question 68. The number of phenotypes and genotypes in the F1 generation of a Mendelian dihybrid cross is

    • (a) phenotypes-4, : genotypes-16
      (b) phenotypes-9; Genotypes-4
      (c) Phenotypes-4; Genotypes-8
      (d) Phenotypes-4; Genotypes-9

Answer: (d) Phenotypes-4; Genotypes-9

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